More than 1,000,000 readers annually worldwide

The Official Journal of the Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation

The Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation Newsletter is the official publication of the nonprofit Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation and is published three times per year in Wilmington, Delaware. Contri­butions to the Foundation are tax-deduct­ible. ©Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation, 2021.

The opinions expressed in this Newsletter are not necessarily those of the Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation. The APSF neither writes nor promulgates standards, and the opinions expressed herein should not be construed to constitute practice standards or practice parameters. Validity of opinions presented, drug dosages, accuracy, and completeness of content are not guaranteed by the APSF.

APSF Executive Committee 2021:

Mark A. Warner, MD, President, Rochester, MN; Daniel J. Cole, MD, Vice President, Los Angeles, CA; Steven B. Greenberg, MD, Secretary, Chicago, IL; Douglas A. Bartlett, Treasurer, Boulder, CO; Lynn Reede, DNP, MBA, CRNA, FNAP, Director At-Large, Boston, MA.

APSF Newsletter Editorial Board 2021:

Steven B. Greenberg, MD, Editor, Chicago, IL; Jennifer M. Banayan, MD, Editor, Chicago, IL; Edward A. Bittner, MD, PhD, Associate Editor, Boston, MA; JW Beard, MD, Wilmette, IL; Heather Colombano, MD, Winston-Salem, NC; Jan Ehrenwerth, MD, New Haven, CT; John H. Eichhorn, MD, San Jose, CA; Meghan Lane-Fall, MD, Philadelphia, PA; Nikolaus Gravenstein, MD, Gainesville, FL; Joshua Lea, CRNA, Boston, MA; Bommy Hong Mershon, MD, Baltimore, MD; Tricia A. Meyer, PharmD, Temple, TX; Glenn S. Murphy, MD, Chicago, IL; Steven Shafer MD, Stanford, CA; Brian Thomas, JD, Kansas City, MO; Felipe Urdaneta, MD, Gainesville, FL; Jeffrey S. Vender, MD, Winnetka, IL; Wilson Somerville, PhD, Editorial Assistant, Winston-Salem, NC. Please see the links of international editors at https://www.apsf.org/wp-content/uploads/newsletter/APSF-International-Editors.pdf

Address all general, contributor, and sub­scription correspondence to:

Stacey Maxwell, Administrator
Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation
P.O. Box 6668
Rochester, MN 55903, U.S.A.
[email protected]

Address Newsletter editorial comments, questions, letters, and suggestions to:

Steven B. Greenberg, MD
Editor, APSF Newsletter
[email protected]psf.org

Jennifer M. Banayan, MD
Editor, APSF Newsletter
[email protected]

Edward A. Bittner, MD, PhD
Associate Editor, APSF Newsletter
[email protected]

Online Editors:
Josh Lea, CRNA
Felipe Urdaneta, MD

Send contributions to:

Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation
P.O. Box 6668
Rochester, MN 55903, U.S.A.

Or please donate online at apsf.org/donate.